Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe - Nature Letter
We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000–5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ~8,000–7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a ~24,000-year-old Siberian6. By ~6,000–5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ~4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ~75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least ~3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin9 of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.
a, Proposed routes of migration by early farmers into Europe ~9,000−7000 years ago.b, Resurgence of hunter-gatherer ancestry during the Middle Neolithic 7,000−5,000 years ago. c, Arrival of steppe ancestry in central Europe ... 4,500 years ago (Click to enlarge - original http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/images/nature14317-sf4.jpg )
It took 25 institutions to conclude that:ReplyDelete
"At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ~8,000-7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary, and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers"
The fact that we have found 8,000 year old boats in the Solent with 8,000 year old wheat from Turkey would normally suggest (to any rationale thinking person) that a marine civilisation, using both the inland waterways (via the black sea) and the Mediterranean shoreline sea routes to Britain would leave biological evidence of there existence, in the form of DNA.
What I do find incredible is that even now with real scientific evidence the 'experts' still call pre-farming civilisations 'hunter-gatherers' - which they are NOT! Hunter-gatherers are 'nomads' who wander the land as in Africa, these people had boats (although I have now seen academic papers calling these pre-farming people 'marine hunter-gatherers' - which is complete nonsense). We are in a place in history were the reality is finally being exposed though good scientific evidence, yet the old institutions are still in denial that they had it wrong all along and the history taught in schools and universities is just 'pulp fiction'!